Spruce Tree Species: List of Different Types of Spruce
Bird's Nest Spruce, dwarf variety of Norway Spruce
Black Spruce, often found in swamp habitats
Brewer Spruce, named after its founder William Henry Brewer
Caucasian Spruce, also known as Oriental Spruce
Colorado Blue Spruce, aptly named for its blue needles
Dwarf Alberta Spruce, popular choice for landscape design
Engelmann's Spruce, Native to Western United States, British Columbia and Alberta, Canada
Norway Spruce, popular choice for Christmas trees
Red Spruce, shade tolerant
Serbian Spruce, used in urban landscapes
Sitka Spruce, tallest of the spruce tree species
White Spruce, native to United States and Canada
Here is some detailed information on the spruce tree.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from 20 to 60 metres (66 to 200 ft) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus. The needles are shed when 4 to 10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pulvinus (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth).
Spruce is one of the most important woods for paper uses, as it has long wood fibres which bind together to make strong paper. Spruces are cultivated over vast areas for this purpose. Also, spruce is useful as a building wood, commonly referred to by several different names including North American timber, SPF (spruce, pine, fir) and whitewood. Spruce wood is used for many purposes, ranging from general construction work and crates to highly specialised uses in wooden aircraft and many musical instruments called "Tonewood", including guitars, mandolins, cellos, violins, and the soundboard at the heart of a piano. The Wright Brothers' first aircraft was built of spruce.
Because this species has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only (ex. indoor drywall framing). Spruce wood, when left outside can not be expected to last more than 12 to 18 months depending on the type of climate it is exposed to.
The leaves and branches, or the essential oils, can be used to brew spruce beer. The tips from the needles can be used to make spruce tip syrup. Native Americans in New England also used the sap to make a gum which was used for various reasons, and which was the basis of the first commercial production of chewing gum. In survival situations spruce needles can be directly ingested or boiled into a tea. This replaces large amounts of vitamin C. Also, water is stored in a spruce's needles, providing an alternative means of hydration. Spruce can be used as a preventative measure for scurvy in an environment where meat is the only prominent food source.
Native Americans in North America use the thin, pliable roots of some species for weaving baskets and for sewing together pieces of birch bark for canoes.
Spruces are also popular ornamental trees in horticulture, admired for their evergreen, symmetrical narrow-conic growth habit.
For the same reason, some are also extensively used as Christmas trees.
United States land is covered by over 30 per cent with trees and forests
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